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The Dictatorship of Relativism According to Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI and Its Implication for Conscience Formation and Other Essays"

Lovely Remedios Lansang (Philippines)

Master of Arts in Theological Studies
Adviser: Fr. Hartono Budi, S.J., Th.D.


This thesis consists of four research papers in the fields of systematic and pastoral theology and ministry which address key issues in the life of the Church today. The first essay examines what Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI calls “the dictatorship of relativism” and how this phenomenon creates a distorted notion of freedom. The essay also explores some avenues for the conscience formation of Christians in the face of relativism. The second essay is a commentary on Chapter I, Paragraphs 1-9 of St. Bonaventure’s De praeparatione ad Missam. It looks into the context in which St. Bonaventure wrote as well as the sources he used, attempting as well to relate the treatise to modern situations. The third essay, entitled “Towards a Church of Dialogue and Encounter: The Sensus Fidelium According to Pope Francis in the Light of Lumen Gentium Chapter 2,” examines how Pope Francis’ closeness to the people and his regard for their simple faith cultivate a culture of dialogue and encounter in the Church. The fourth essay is a commentary on Canon 213 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law which considers it as a right for the Christian faithful to receive assistance from their pastors especially in the word of God and the sacraments. The commentary delves into the mind of Pope Francis, exploring how the sacraments in particular assist the people in their faith.

Final Defense:

Date of Oral Defense: February 20, 2015

Board of Examiners: Fr. Reginaldo Mananzan, S.J.,J.C.D. (Principal Examiner), Fr. Romeo Intengan, S.J., M.D., S.T.L. and Fr. Fernando Guillen Preckler, Sch.P., S.T.D.

Proposal Defense:

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Loyola School of Theology